Today very few Amerindians live in their fully traditional ways, although there remain dozens of "uncontacted" groups living in remote parts of Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Paraguay, the Andaman Islands off India, New Guinea, and possibly Ecuador and Bolivia. Uncontacted tribes, more commonly called indigenous peoples living in voluntary isolation, are generally small bands that have splintered off from groups that have contact with the outside world. Brazil accounts for the largest number of groups living in voluntary isolation.
In Brazil, Peru, and Colombia, these groups are granted substantial territories to enable them to continue living in isolation should they choose. However, conflict is still known arise between outside parities and these groups. In Brazil, invasion of lands belonging to uncontacted tribes is generally illegal — trespassers are usually cattle ranchers, loggers, miners or drug traffickers.
Indigenous peoples living in voluntary isolation are particularly vulnerable to outside disease since they haven't been exposed to many of the viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens that we encounter on a regular basis.
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